Wednesday, 7 September 2016

Key Facts On Diabetes

Diabetes, medically referred as diabetes mellitus, is characterised by the elevation of blood sugar level. It describes a group of metabolic disorders in which a person has hyperglycaemia, either due to inadequate insulin production or due to insulin resistance. People with diabetes usually experience frequent thirst (polydipsia), frequent urination (polyuria) and frequent hungry (polyphagia).

Here are few key facts about diabetes –
  • Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterised by the high blood glucose
  • Type 1 diabetes (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) – The body does not produce insulin to control blood glucose
  • Type 2 diabetes (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) – The body produces small amount of insulin that fails to manage blood glucose
  • Gestational diabetes – High blood sugar during pregnancy
  • People with type 2 diabetes initially have pre-diabetes
  • Pre-diabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels are high, but not enough to confirm the diagnosis
  • Studies have reported the circulatory system is affected even if a person is in pre-diabetic stage
  • If diabetes is not under control, you are susceptible to medical complications such as heart disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, gangrene, impotency and weight loss

Complications of diabetes
If left untreated, uncontrolled diabetes can increase the risk of following health complications –
  • Heart – Ischemia Heart Disease (IHD), high blood pressure, heart attack
  • Nervous System – Neuropathy (nerve damage) can lead to tingling and loss of sensation, stroke
  • Kidneys – Nephropathy can cause severe kidney disease
  • Eyes – Retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, dry eye, etc.
  • Foot – Diabetic foot, gangrene
  • Erectile Dysfunction – Impotency
  • Skin – Increased risk of skin diseases and skin infections
  • Psychological – Depression and anxiety
  • Delayed wound healing

Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections in association with strict diet and exercise. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes is treated with oral hypoglycaemia agents (OHA), exercise and special diet. Some type 2 diabetics may even require insulin to control their blood sugar.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for diabetes. However, it is treatable with effective medications and/or insulin. To know more about diabetes, read the book Understanding Diabetes, which is available at PharmacyOutlet.

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